Tag: learn english

English Lesson: “Simple Past” vs “Present Perfect”

English Lesson: “Simple Past” vs “Present Perfect”

“Do you have any easy, simple ways to tell the difference between ‘simple past’ and ‘present perfect’?” – Thiago

No, no I don’t, especially when it comes to academic English. Most of the time, grammar focused questions are brought up because people need help with standardized tests like the TOEFL or TOEIC.

The best thing you can do to prepare for a standardized test is to take practice tests.

You need to become familiar with the format and style of questions they’ll ask you on that kind of test. The frustrating thing is, there’s people who do amazing on the tests but can’t speak English at all. On the same token, you’ll have people who are GREAT at actually using English, but fail again and again when taking their test.

Their self-esteem gets destroyed. They start to think they don’t have any language ability at all. That’s the classroom bubble for you– and one of the reasons why I’ve removed myself from that kind of environment.

So let’s focus on how to tie this into real life applicable skills.

Simple Past

When most people learn English verb conjugations, they learn them like this:

  1. talk
  2. am talking
  3. talked
  4. have talked

That third version, talked, is what we call the “simple past”. For a lot of the verbs out there, we can just add “-ed”. But be careful, there’s plenty of irregular verbs that you’ll have to memorize like drove, ate, spoke.

  • I talked to Sam last month.
  • I drove to the mall.
  • She already ate.
  • We spoke often.

In each of these sentences, they’re simple facts. Most often they’ll be answering a question. But even if they’re not a response, they’re very simple statements that don’t tell us too much.

They’re not really good for conversation. Here’s how they might look in a dialogue:

  • A: Hey, what’s new with you?
  • B: Not much really. I talked to Sam last month.
  • A: Oh that’s cool. Well, what’d you do yesterday?
  • B: I drove to the mall.
  • A: …
  • B: …
  • A: Um, you want to get something to eat? You can bring your girlfriend if you want.
  • B: She already ate.

All of the grammar above is correct. All the English is technically “perfect”, but it’s not good conversation.

When you stick with short and simple answers, you force the other person to carry the conversation. This isn’t very fun for them. They probably won’t talk to you much longer or ever again.

Present Perfect

Let’s look at our conjugation list again:

  1. talk
  2. am talking
  3. talked
  4. have talked

The fourth version, have talked, is what we call the “present perfect”. We’ll make it by adding “have” in front of the simple past.

So now for the big question: what’s the difference? You should think of present perfect in terms of the overall experience. It’s easier if we look at them side by side to compare:

  • Jon taught in Japan. (simple past)
  • Jon has taught in several schools– some in Japan, some in the US, and some online. (present perfect)

In the simple past version, it’s a short statement that’s a matter of fact. In the second statement, we get a little more insight into Jon. It’s much easier to continue the conversation when we have that information and detail.

  • I saw a movie yesterday. (simple past)
  • I’ve seen so many movies like this one. (present perfect)

If someone says the first sentence, I can try to continue the conversation. It’ll probably be boring, step-by-step small talk (i.e. What movie? Where did you see it? How was it?). But if someone says the second sentence, I can get a little bit more of their personality. Maybe they feel this movie is unoriginal, but you loved it.

  • She wrote a thank you letter. (simple past)
  • She’s written a thank you letter for every person who came to her party. (present perfect)

I think you get it by now. One has a simple fact. The other is going to give us insight. Remember, this is the key to continuing a conversation. This is the way to learn present perfect for speaking.

Don’t force yourself to always use present perfect. When someone asks you a question and you respond, native speakers will use simple past too. The only problem is when someone only sticks to using one verb form.

If you’re interested in learning more conversational English like this, connect with Jon to sign up for online private English coaching or face-to-face sessions in Boston. We’ll work on making you sound like a native speaker.

Advertisements
English Lesson: “I feel like ~ing”

English Lesson: “I feel like ~ing”

During one of my Boston Lessons, my client was talking about Halloween. He wasn’t too big of a fan and had this to say about buying a costume:

“I feel like wasting money.”

But unfortunately, that doesn’t work in this context. If we take the sentence as it is: “I feel like wasting money” actually means “I want to waste money.”

This is what happens when we use “I feel like” followed by the gerund form.

Now maybe, just maybe, my client wants to waste money, but I’m going to assume he meant to say “Costumes are a waste of money”. And if so, he would want to change his original sentence to either:

  1. I feel like I’m wasting money.
  2. I feel like I wasted money.

In both cases, you need a second subject indicator.

Remember: using “I feel like” with the gerund means you want to do that action.

  • I feel like eating sushi. = I want to eat sushi.
  • I feel like taking the day off. = I want to take the day off (i.e. stay home from work).
English Lesson: How to Cuss

English Lesson: How to Cuss

When people claim they don’t know English, they’re lying. There’s a handful of words everyone knows. In fact, they’re the words people are most eager to learn in any language.

No, I’m not talking about “hello” or “hi”. It’s not “what’s your name” or “where’s the bathroom” either.

The vocabulary that everybody wants to know are the four letter words (also known as cuss words):

  • damn
  • shit
  • fuck

English has a lot of cuss words that go beyond four letters, but maybe I can cover that some other time. The important thing to know is, they’re a huge part of our culture.

They’re in our movies. Some of the most popular catch phrases of all time include them:

“Frankly my dear, I don’t give a damn.” – Gone With the Wind

“Get your stinking paws off me, you damned dirty ape.” – Planet of the Apes

The celebrities we idolize use them inside and outside of acting roles too!

They show a wide variety of emotions. When we’re angry, we say “fuck you!” When we’re in disbelief, we say “Are you fucking kidding me?!”

If you learn to understand cuss words, there’s no doubt you’d be pretty savvy to a language.

I would, however, suggest that you try to keep its usage to a minimum. Yeah, you might sound like a native speaker. Sure, it might be fun. But an excess of foul language can really hurt your image.

Using cuss words never makes you sound smart.

And the problem I’ve seen with a lot of internationals who try to cuss is 1) they don’t get the pronunciation down and 2) they don’t know how to turn it off. Trying to cuss with an accent can make your English sound much worse. And cussing in situations in which you shouldn’t be (i.e. around small children) makes you seem like an poor mannered idiot.

Beware the four letter words!

English Lesson: “Pardon”

English Lesson: “Pardon”

Sometimes a native speaker might be talking too fast. In order to get that person to stop, repeat, and clarify, you’ve learned how to say “pardon”.

The problem is that when you say “pardon” you’re making your English sound terrible. It’s going to be much easier to learn other replacement phrases instead.

You’re probably aware of “excuse me”. Just be sure to cut the first syllable so it sounds like “scuse”. Then, you can use it in combination with one of these phrases:

  • What did you say?
  • What was that?

To respond in disbelief or shock, you can use the phrase “Say what”.

Example: You got fired from your job– say what? = Am I hearing you right– you got fired? (I can’t believe it!)

If you’re really dead set on using “pardon”, you should extend it to “pardon me” and add another phrase. For instance, “Pardon me, I didn’t catch what you were saying.” Just be aware that sounds more formal (and European).