Tag: speak english

English Lesson: “Simple Past” vs “Present Perfect”

English Lesson: “Simple Past” vs “Present Perfect”

“Do you have any easy, simple ways to tell the difference between ‘simple past’ and ‘present perfect’?” – Thiago

No, no I don’t, especially when it comes to academic English. Most of the time, grammar focused questions are brought up because people need help with standardized tests like the TOEFL or TOEIC.

The best thing you can do to prepare for a standardized test is to take practice tests.

You need to become familiar with the format and style of questions they’ll ask you on that kind of test. The frustrating thing is, there’s people who do amazing on the tests but can’t speak English at all. On the same token, you’ll have people who are GREAT at actually using English, but fail again and again when taking their test.

Their self-esteem gets destroyed. They start to think they don’t have any language ability at all. That’s the classroom bubble for you– and one of the reasons why I’ve removed myself from that kind of environment.

So let’s focus on how to tie this into real life applicable skills.

Simple Past

When most people learn English verb conjugations, they learn them like this:

  1. talk
  2. am talking
  3. talked
  4. have talked

That third version, talked, is what we call the “simple past”. For a lot of the verbs out there, we can just add “-ed”. But be careful, there’s plenty of irregular verbs that you’ll have to memorize like drove, ate, spoke.

  • I talked to Sam last month.
  • I drove to the mall.
  • She already ate.
  • We spoke often.

In each of these sentences, they’re simple facts. Most often they’ll be answering a question. But even if they’re not a response, they’re very simple statements that don’t tell us too much.

They’re not really good for conversation. Here’s how they might look in a dialogue:

  • A: Hey, what’s new with you?
  • B: Not much really. I talked to Sam last month.
  • A: Oh that’s cool. Well, what’d you do yesterday?
  • B: I drove to the mall.
  • A: …
  • B: …
  • A: Um, you want to get something to eat? You can bring your girlfriend if you want.
  • B: She already ate.

All of the grammar above is correct. All the English is technically “perfect”, but it’s not good conversation.

When you stick with short and simple answers, you force the other person to carry the conversation. This isn’t very fun for them. They probably won’t talk to you much longer or ever again.

Present Perfect

Let’s look at our conjugation list again:

  1. talk
  2. am talking
  3. talked
  4. have talked

The fourth version, have talked, is what we call the “present perfect”. We’ll make it by adding “have” in front of the simple past.

So now for the big question: what’s the difference? You should think of present perfect in terms of the overall experience. It’s easier if we look at them side by side to compare:

  • Jon taught in Japan. (simple past)
  • Jon has taught in several schools– some in Japan, some in the US, and some online. (present perfect)

In the simple past version, it’s a short statement that’s a matter of fact. In the second statement, we get a little more insight into Jon. It’s much easier to continue the conversation when we have that information and detail.

  • I saw a movie yesterday. (simple past)
  • I’ve seen so many movies like this one. (present perfect)

If someone says the first sentence, I can try to continue the conversation. It’ll probably be boring, step-by-step small talk (i.e. What movie? Where did you see it? How was it?). But if someone says the second sentence, I can get a little bit more of their personality. Maybe they feel this movie is unoriginal, but you loved it.

  • She wrote a thank you letter. (simple past)
  • She’s written a thank you letter for every person who came to her party. (present perfect)

I think you get it by now. One has a simple fact. The other is going to give us insight. Remember, this is the key to continuing a conversation. This is the way to learn present perfect for speaking.

Don’t force yourself to always use present perfect. When someone asks you a question and you respond, native speakers will use simple past too. The only problem is when someone only sticks to using one verb form.

If you’re interested in learning more conversational English like this, connect with Jon to sign up for online private English coaching or face-to-face sessions in Boston. We’ll work on making you sound like a native speaker.

Advertisements
English Lesson: “In My Mind” Vs “On My Mind”

English Lesson: “In My Mind” Vs “On My Mind”

In this post, let’s clarify two prepositional phrases:

  • in my mind
  • on my mind

Truth be told, you’re not really going to use “in my mind” all that much. If you hear it, it just means “in my opinion”. So why not use in my opinion? Exactly!

“On my mind” will be way more useful for you because it’s more conversation-pertinent. You can ask someone who looks worried, “What’s on your mind?”

And if someone asks you, “Hey, what are you thinking?” You can respond with, “X is on my mind”.

Just be careful not to double dip– that’s the quickest way to stalling your speech fluency. Here’s a basic example:

  • “What’s your favorite movie of all time?”
  • My favorite movie of all time is…

Using too close of the same wording makes you sound like a robot. So in a similar way, avoid using “on my mind” like this:

  • “What’s on your mind?”
  • X has been on my mind.

Again, choose one or the other. Don’t use them back to back.

If you’re interested in learning more conversational English like this, connect with Jon to sign up for online private English coaching or face-to-face sessions in Boston. We’ll work on making you sound like a native speaker.

English Lesson: How to Use “Care”

English Lesson: How to Use “Care”

Learning new vocabulary is great! However, don’t forget to learn how to actually apply the word into a real life setting. Remember: context is key.

For this lesson, let’s examine the word “care”, which more or less means to have or show concern. Most of you know this word. Most of you know how to use this word:

  • I care about my family.
  • I care about my health
  • I care about my education.

All of those sentences use perfect English… for the classroom. In real life, people don’t actually use those expressions. They can, but it would be a little unnatural.

The reason is that we more commonly use “care” in response to an argument. If someone accuses us of “not caring”, we can quickly retort back “We do care!” Yes, it’s really that simple.

But Jon, you might say, I’ve been hearing politicians say “they care~” about so many things on the news.

Remember: context is key. In those situations, are they normal conversations? No. They’re elevated platforms in which the candidates are supposed to argue a cause. They’re in effect very formal.

For the rest of us? We’ll save the word “care” for our dating lives.

If you’re interested in learning more conversational English like this, connect with Jon to sign up for online private English coaching or face-to-face sessions in Boston. We’ll work on making you sound like a native speaker.

English Lesson: How to Use “That”

English Lesson: How to Use “That”

There’s a bunch of different ways we use “that” in English, ranging from the formal to conversational. Let’s take a moment to review the two usages you’re most familiar with.

First, we can use “that” to identify. Which one? This one? That one? No, that one over there! It’s pretty simple. You point out which object is closer in proximity. Or, if there’s more that one option, you can use “that” to identify the other one.

Second, we can use “that” in adjective clauses/phrases. We know simple adjectives (i.e. happy, sad, old, new, red, orange), but we can give more details if we shy away from using only one word. For instance, “the old car” can be better explained as “the car that has three broken windows”. Then, if we think of it in the context of a sentence: The car that has three broken windows is mine.

You might be wondering what’s the difference between a clause and a phrase. That gets to a more technical grammar point– something that doesn’t really matter in the context of conversation. But here’s two easy examples you can compare and contrast:

  • The book that I borrowed was a best-seller. (adjective clause because “I+borrowed” contains a subject and verb)
  • The girl that is sitting at the table is cute. (adjective phrase because “is sitting” contains only the verb)

The bottom line is adjective clauses and phrases is something you need to distinguish for tests. In real life? Outside of reading? It’s going to be too formal to talk this way. It’s much more common to hear someone say:

  • You know that book I borrowed? It’s a best-seller.
  • That girl by the table is cute.

Short, sweet, and to the point! And that leads us to the third usage– we can use “that” to add emphasis in conversation. Before, we learned how to use “way” to sound real slick in our speaking. We can also use “that” in a similar manner, but in a negative context.

  • This movie wasn’t that good.

Put simply, the movie wasn’t good. But, we added the word “that” for impact. We could’ve also said the movie wasn’t so good or the movie really wasn’t good. “That” will sound the most relaxed and comfortable, and since that should be your goal in pursuing English fluency, it’s the right way to go!


 

If you’re interested in learning more conversational English like this, connect with Jon to sign up for online private English coaching or face-to-face sessions in Boston. We’ll work on making you sound like a native speaker.